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Minggu, 05 Agustus 2012

Materi : Gerunds and Infinitives 1

1. A gerund is a noun made from a verb by adding "-ing." The gerund form of the verb "read" is "reading." You can use a gerund as the subject, the complement, or the object of a sentence.
Examples:
  • Reading helps you learn English. subject of sentence
  • Her favorite hobby is reading. complement of sentence
  • I enjoy reading. object of sentence
Gerunds can be made negative by adding "not."
Examples:
  • He enjoys not working.
  • The best thing for your health is not smoking.
2. Infinitives are the "to" form of the verb. The infinitive form of "learn" is "to learn." You can also use an infinitive as the subject, the complement, or the object of a sentence.
Examples:
  • To learn is important. subject of sentence
  • The most important thing is to learn. complement of sentence
  • He wants to learn. object of sentence
Infinitives can be made negative by adding "not."
Examples:
  • I decided not to go.
  • The most important thing is not to give up.
3. Both gerunds and infinitives can be used as the subject or the complement of a sentence. However, as subjects or complements, gerunds usually sound more like normal, spoken English, whereas infinitives sound more abstract. In the following sentences, gerunds sound more natural and would be more common in everyday English. Infinitives emphasize the possibility or potential for something and sound more philosophical. If this sounds confusing, just remember that 90% of the time, you will use a gerund as the subject or complement of a sentence.
Examples:
  • Learning is important. normal subject
  • To learn is important. abstract subject - less common
  • The most important thing is learning. normal complement
  • The most important thing is to learn. abstract complement - less common
4. As the object of a sentence, it is more difficult to choose between a gerund or an infinitive. In such situations, gerunds and infinitives are not normally interchangeable. Usually, the main verb in the sentence determines whether you use a gerund or an infinitive.
Examples:
  • He enjoys swimming. "Enjoy" requires a gerund.
  • He wants to swim. "Want" requires an infinitive.
5. Some verbs are followed by gerunds as objects.
Verbs Followed by Gerunds
9 = verb followed by a gerund OR a noun + an infinitive
13 = verb followed by a gerund OR an infinitive with a difference in meaning
14 = verb followed by a gerund OR an infinitive with little difference in meaning
admit
He admitted cheating on the test.
advise [9]
The doctor generally advised drinking low-fat milk.
allow [9]
Ireland doesn't allow smoking in bars.
anticipate
I anticipated arriving late.
appreciate
I appreciated her helping me.
avoid
He avoided talking to her.
begin [14]
I began learning Chinese.
can't bear [14]
He can't bear having so much responsibility.
can't help
He can't help talking so loudly.
can't see
I can't see paying so much money for a car.
can't stand [14]
He can't stand her smoking in the office.
cease [14]
The government ceased providing free healthcare.
complete
He completed renovating the house.
consider
She considered moving to New York.
continue [14]
He continued talking.
defend
The lawyer defended her making such statements.
delay
He delayed doing his taxes.
deny
He denied committing the crime.
despise
She despises waking up early.
discuss
We discussed working at the company.
dislike
She dislikes working after 5 PM.
don't mind
I don't mind helping you.
dread [13]
She dreads getting up at 5 AM.
encourage [9]
He encourages eating healthy foods.
enjoy
We enjoy hiking.
finish [13]
He finished doing his homework.
forget [13]
I forgot giving you my book.
hate [14]
I hate cleaning the bathroom.
imagine
He imagines working there one day.
involve
The job involves traveling to Japan once a month.
keep
She kept interrupting me.
like [14]
She likes listening to music.
love [14]
I love swimming.
mention
He mentioned going to that college.
mind
Do you mind waiting here for a few minutes.
miss
She misses living near the beach.
need [13]
The aquarium needs cleaning.
neglect [14]
Sometimes she neglects doing her homework.
permit [9]
California does not permit smoking in restaurants.
postpone
He postponed returning to Paris.
practice
She practiced singing the song.
prefer [14]
He prefers sitting at the back of the movie theater.
propose [14]
I proposed having lunch at the beach.
quit [13]
She quit worrying about the problem.
recall
Tom recalled using his credit card at the store.
recollect
She recollected living in Kenya.
recommend
Tony recommended taking the train.
regret [13]
She regretted saying that.
remember [13]
I remember telling her the address yesterday.
report
He reported her stealing the money.
require [9]
The certificate requires completing two courses.
resent
Nick resented Debbie's being there.
resist
He resisted asking for help.
risk
He risked being caught.
start [14]
He started studying harder.
stop [13]
She stopped working at 5 o'clock.
suggest
They suggested staying at the hotel.
tolerate
I tolerated her talking.
try [13]
Sam tried opening the lock with a paperclip.
understand
I understand his quitting.
urge [9]
They urge recycling bottles and paper.

Examples:
  • She suggested going to a movie.
  • Mary keeps talking about her problems.
6. Some verbs are followed by infinitives.
Verbs Followed by Infinitives
8 = verb followed by an infinitive OR an optional noun + an infinitive
13 = verb followed by a gerund OR an infinitive with a difference in meaning
14 = verb followed by a gerund OR an infinitive with little difference in meaning
agree
Tom agreed to help me.
appear
His health appeared to be better.
arrange
Naomi arranged to stay with her cousin in Miami.
ask [8]
She asked to leave.
begin [13]
He began to talk.
can't bear [14]
He can't bear to be alone.
can't stand [14]
Nancy can't stand to work the late shift.
care
He doesn't care to participate in the activity.
cease [14]
The government ceased to provide free healthcare.
choose [8]
I chose to help.
claim
She claimed to be a princess.
continue [14]
She continued to talk.
decide
We decided to go to Hawaii.
demand
He demanded to speak to Mr. Harris.
deserve
He deserves to go to jail.
dread [13]
I dread to think what might happen.
expect [8]
They expect to arrive early.
fail
He failed to get enough money to pay for the new project.
forget [13]
I forgot to lock the door when I left.
get (be allowed to)
Debbie gets to go to the concert next week! Why can't I?
happen
She happened to be at the bank when it was robbed.
hate [14]
He hates to clean dishes.
hesitate
She hesitated to tell me the problem.
hope
I hope to begin college this year.
intend
We intend to visit you next spring.
learn
I learned to speak Japanese when I was a kid.
like [14]
Samantha likes to read.
love [14]
We love to scuba dive.
manage
He managed to open the door without the key.
need [8,13]
I need to study.
neglect [14]
She neglected to tell me the date of the meeting.
offer
Frank offered to drive us to the supermarket.
plan
We plan to go to Europe this summer.
prefer [14]
He prefers to eat at 7 PM.
prepare [8]
They prepared to take the test.
pretend
The child pretended to be a monster.
promise [8]
She promised to stop smoking.
propose [14]
Drew proposed to pay for the trip.
refuse
The guard refused to let them enter the building.
regret [13]
I regret to inform you that your application was rejected.
remember [13]
Did you remember to lock the door when you left?
seem
Nancy seemed to be disappointed.
start [13]
Marge started to talk really fast.
swear
She swore to tell the truth.
tend
He tends to be a little shy.
threaten [8]
He threatened to leave forever.
try [13]
Mary tried to lift the table, but it was too heavy.
vow
He vowed to get revenge.
wait
She waited to buy a movie ticket.
want [8]
I want to study Spanish.
wish [8]
I wish to stay.
would like [8]
(meaning "wish" or "want")
We would like to start now.
yearn
Melanie yearns to travel somewhere exotic.

Examples:
  • She wants to go to a movie.
  • Mary needs to talk about her problems.

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